Capsaicin and the lung

Capsaicin and the respiratory system.


Tracheostomy is an operation in which an opening is made in the trachea (windpipe) and a tube is inserted in order to maintain an effective airway. A tracheostomy is used for the emergency treatment of various airway problems involving the larynx (voicebox). A planned tracheostomy is most commonly performed on a person who has lost the ability to breathe naturally and is undergoing long-term ventilation or is unable to keep saliva and other secretions out of the trachea. Permanent tracheostomy is needed after laryngectomy (removal of the larynx).


Z-plasty is a surgical technique that is used in plastic surgery to change the direction of a preexisting scar in order for it to be hidden within the natural creases of the skin. Z-plasty is also used to relieve skin tension occurring as a result of contracture of a scar. The technique is especially useful for revising unsightly scars on the face and for releasing scarring across joints, such as on the fingers or in the armpits, that may restrict normal movement or cause deformity.

Tympanoplasty Surgery Technique

A tympanoplasty is an operation on the ear to treat conductive deafness by repairing a hole in the eardrum (myringoplasty) or by repositioning or reconstructing the diseased ossicles (tiny bones in the middle ear that conduct sound).

Tympanoplasty Surgery  - Underlay and Overlay Techniques - technical

Also known as: Ear drum repair; Lateral graft technique; Medial graft technique; Myringoplasty; Tympanic membrane repair; Type I tympanoplasty; Undersurface repair