Immunoglobulins - technical


Immunoglobulins or antibodies are proteins secreted by B cells, specialized cells in the immune system, and interact with antigens or foreign material. These proteins are responsible for humoral immunity (or immunity found in serum) against pathogens, toxins, or in some pathological conditions, autoimmune diseases. Immunoglobulins are made by rearrangement of multiple gene segments in two separate genes, and are generally premade prior to exposure to pathogens.

Alveolar Haemorrhage

Alveolar Haemorrhage - technical

Bleeding into the alveoli characterizes the syndrome of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and represents a potential life-threatening condition. There are many causes of DAH, including vasculitides, such as Wegener’s granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Good pasture’s syndrome, connective tissue disorders, and other conditions.

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) - technical


Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by recurrent episodes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and sideropenic anemia. IPH occurs most commonly in children. During an acute episode, a constellation of cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis with alveolar infiltrates and worsening anemia should raise the suspicion for intrapulmonary bleeding.

Pneumocystis jirovecii

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia- technical


The ascomycete fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously called Pneumocystis carinii) is the cause of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in humans, which occurs largely among people with impaired CD4+ T-lymphocyte function or numbers, e.g those infected with HIV, or organ transplant recipients taking therapeutic immunosuppressive agents. The organism is restricted to humans, and disease is now thought to arise from de novo infection by inhalation from an exogenous source.


Eotaxins - technical


The Eotaxins are small proteins secreted during allergic reactions that have the ability to attract eosinophils and certain other cell types from the blood. Three of these CC-chemokines have been described, Eotaxin-1, -2, and -3. They induce leukocyte recruitment by acting on a receptor, CCR3, which is highly expressed on the surface of eosinophils and also on basophils, mast cells, and a subpopulation of the Th2 lymphocytes.

Environmental Pollutants Oxidant Gases

Environmental Pollutants - Oxidant Gases - technical


Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, chlorine, and trichloramine are the principal oxidant gases to which man can be exposed in the work or general environment.

Ozone is the main oxidant produced in the troposphere through UV-driven reactions involving nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds.

Nitrogen dioxide is an indoor and outdoor pollutant generated by all combustion processes when at high temperatures oxygen combines with nitrogen.


Cryoglobulinemia - technical


Mixed cryoglobulinemia is a disease characterized by the clinical triad of palpable purpura, arthralgia, and weakness. It is associated with the presence of circulating cryoglobulins. It may be secondary to infectious, neoplastic, and autoimmune diseases. A striking association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and mixed cryoglobulinemia has been documented in the majority of patients (75–95%).