Artificial nutrition support

Artificial nutrition support - technical

Topics covered:

Fats and Oils

Fats and oils

Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation.

Vitamins And Trace Elements

Vitamins are any of a group of complex organic substances essential, in small amounts, for the normal functioning of the body. There are 13 vitamins: A, C, D, E, K, B 12 , and seven grouped under the vitamin B complex.

Apart from vitamin D, which the body can synthesize itself, vitamins must be obtained from the diet. A varied diet is likely to contain adequate amounts of all the vitamins, but vitamin supplements may be helpful for: young children, pregnant or breast-feeding women, or those taking drugs that interfere with vitamin function.


Garlic is one of the top-selling herbs in Europe and the United States. It has been used since antiquity for the treatment of cardiovascular and infectious diseases. The German Federal Health Agency Commission E and the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy have approved its use for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Garlic is available in multiple over-the-counter formulations (dried, powdered, oils). Many products are standardized to yield 0.6% allicin, the ingredient believed responsible for its odor and therapeutic benefit.

Fish and Seafood

Fish and seafood.


In discussing the food uses of fishes, the term ‘fish’ refers to edible species of finfish, molluscs, and crustaceans coming from the marine or freshwater bodies of the world, either by capture fisheries or by aquaculture. Accordingly, ‘fishery products’ means any human food product in which fish is a characterizing ingredient, such as dried, salted, and smoked fish, marinated fish, canned seafood, minced fish flesh such as surimi, and miscellaneous products.


Eggs have been a staple food in the human diet for thousands of years. From hunter-gatherers collecting eggs from the nests of wild birds to the domestication of fowl for a more reliable access to a supply of eggs to today’s genetically selected birds and modern production facilities, eggs have long been recognized as a source of high-quality protein and other important nutrients. Over the years, eggs have become an essential ingredient in many cuisines due to their many functional properties such as water holding, emulsifying, and foaming.


After caffeine, ethanol is the most commonly used recreational drug worldwide. Alcohol is synonymous with ethanol, and drinking often describes the consumption of beverages containing ethanol. In the United Kingdom (UK), a unit of alcohol (standard alcoholic drink; Table 1) contains 8 g of ethanol (ethyl alcohol). The Department of Health, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), and several of the medical Royal Colleges in the UK have recommended sensible limits for alcohol intake based on these units of alcohol.