Bronchoscopy diagnostic and interventional

Bronchoscopy general (diagnostic) and interventional - technical


Tympanometry is a type of hearing test that is used to establish the cause of conductive deafness. During the test, a probe that contains a tone generator, a microphone, and an air pump is introduced into the outer-ear canal. The air pressure in the ear is varied and tones are played into it. The tone pattern reflected from the eardrum and received by the microphone shows if the eardrum is moving normally. Tympanometry is a particularly useful technique for use in children because it does not rely on a response from the person being tested.


Amniocentesis is a diagnostic procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is withdrawn, using a syringe guided by ultrasound scanning, from the amniotic sac (the membrane that surrounds the fetus in the uterus).

Liver Function Tests

Liver function tests are tests of blood chemistry that can detect changes in the way the liver is making new substances and breaking down and/or excreting old ones. The tests can also show whether liver cells are healthy or damaged.

Blood Groups

Blood groups are systems of classifying blood according to the different antigens (marker proteins) on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) and the antibodies in the blood plasma. The antigens affect the ability of the RBCs to provoke an immune response.

The two principal blood grouping systems used are the ABO system and the rhesus system.

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood glucose monitoring is a method of analysing a person’s blood glucose (sugar) levels that requires only a drop of blood taken from a pinprick on the fingertip. The blood is applied to a test strip, which has an area impregnated with a chemical that reacts with the glucose in the blood sample.

The glucose level is shown either by a visible colour change on the strip or by placing the strip in a digital meter. People with diabetes mellitus must perform regular blood glucose monitoring tests to monitor their blood glucose control.

Blood Gases

Blood gases is measurement of the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. The acidity–alkalinity (pH) and bicarbonate levels are also measured. The test is carried out on a sample of blood that has been taken from an artery, usually at the wrist or the groin.

It is useful in diagnosing and monitoring respiratory failure. Bicarbonate and acidity reflect the acid–base balance of the body, which may be disturbed in conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, aspirin poisoning, hyperventilation (overbreathing), or repeated vomiting.