Pulmonary oedema

Pulmonary oedema is the accumulation of fluid in the lungs, which is usually due to left-sided heart failure.The build-up of fluid may also be due to a chest infection, to inhalation of irritant gases, or to any of the problems that cause generalized oedema (fluid accumulation in tissues). The main symptom of pulmonary oedema is breathlessness, which is usually worse when the person is lying flat and may disturb sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea).

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac Arrest - technical


Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest, which causes over 60% of adult coronary heart disease deaths. In Europe, the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests treated by emergency medical systems is 38 per 100 000.

Survival from cardiac arrest depends on a sequence of interventions—the Chain of Survival—comprising:

Patent Foramen Ovale

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a normal variant that occurs in 20 to 30% of the population. There is no deficiency of atrial septal tissue, but after birth—when left atrial (LA) pressure exceeds right atrial (RA) pressure and closes the PFO—the valve of the foramen ovale fails to fuse with the septum.


Leonardo Botallo, an Italian surgeon, is credited with the discovery of the foramen ovale in 1564 (Sebastian 1999).

Lyme Carditis

Lyme Carditis - technical


In the USA, Lyme disease is most often acquired from the bite of the Ixodes scapularis tick, with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In Europe, this disease is more commonly caused by B. afzelii than by B. burgdorferi (Wang et al. 1999).

Infective Endocarditis article

Infective endocarditis in detail - technical


Valves previously affected by rheumatic fever and other valve diseases are thick, rough, and swollen. Bacteria that gain entry into the bloodstream on their way through the heart may attach to the roughened valve surface and set up an area of infection. This bacteria may grow to form an “abscess” on the valve. The abscess resembles a clump of moss that swings and sways on the valve leaflet as it opens and closes.