haematology

Stem Cells and the Lung

Stem Cells and the Lung - technical

Drug Induced Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia

Drug Induced Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia - technical

This article covers the mechanisms, clinical and laboratory features, and treatment of immune hemolytic anemias caused by adverse drug reactions.

Drug-related immune hemolysis must be distinguished from spontaneous autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and from drug-induced nonimmune hemolytic reactions. It is usually a relatively benign process, but fatal cases do occur.

Disorders of the blood - Introduction

Disorders of Blood (Haematology) - Introduction - technical

Topics covered:

  • Essentials
  • Introduction
  • An approach to patients with haematological disorders
  • Examination of the blood
  • Examination of the marrow

Essentials

Almost all diseases can produce changes in the blood, and primary haematological disorders can affect any organ system. The general clinical approach to the patient with a haematological disorder involves the following:

Occupational and environmental health - Haemopoietic system

Occupational and environmental health - Haemopoietic system

Damage to cellular precursors in haemopoiesis can result in pancytopenia or anaemia, as well as neoplasia, but these manifestations are rare. Selective damage can result in inhibition of haemoglobin synthesis, typically caused by lead which is probably the commonest occupational disease affecting the blood. Red cell damage resulting in haemolysis is rare.

Miscellaneous haematological conditions in pregnancy

Miscellaneous haematological conditions in pregnancy - technical

Myeloproliferative diseases in pregnancy

Pregnant patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera may be difficult to manage and the disorder is associated with a high fetal mortality. The live birth rate is approximately 60% in both thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera, with spontaneous abortion during the first trimester being the most common complication and occurring in about 20 to 30% of all pregnancies.

Disorders of haemostasis in pregnancy

Disorders of haemostasis in pregnancy - technical

Normal pregnancy is associated with marked changes in all aspects of haemostasis, the overall effect of which is to generate a state of hypercoagulability (Table 1). The evolutionary benefit of this is clear when one considers that at the time of delivery placental separation provokes an acute massive blood loss in the region of 700 ml/min, which must be stopped immediately. Three weeks after delivery most of the changes in clotting factors have returned to normal.

Haemoglobinopathies in pregnancy

Haemoglobinopathies in pregnancy - technical

Genetic defects in the structure, function, and production of haemoglobin can be divided into two clinically significant groups: variant haemoglobins and the thalassaemia syndromes. Diagnosis prior to, or early in, pregnancy is important so that obstetric management can be tailored appropriately. It is also now possible to offer prenatal diagnosis, which can shape parental decisions with regards to termination of the pregnancy or can direct maternal and fetal management prior to delivery.

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