for doctors

Poisoning by specific chemicals Methanol to Trichloroethylene

Poisoning by specific chemicals - methanol to trichloroethylene - technical

Methanol (methyl alcohol)

Methanol is used widely as a solvent. It is also found in antifreeze solutions, paints, duplicating fluids, paint removers and varnishes, and shoe polishes. The ingestion of as little as 10 ml of pure methanol has caused permanent blindness and 30 ml is potentially fatal, although individual susceptibility varies widely. Toxicity may also occur as a result of inhalation or percutaneous absorption.

Poisoning by specific chemicals Chlorine to Isopropanol

Poisoning by specific chemicals - chlorine to isopropanol - technical


Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas normally transported as a pressurized liquid. Exposure after spillage may be prolonged because gaseous chlorine is heavier than air, causing it to remain near ground level. Chlorine has a pungent odour that can usually be detected by smell at concentrations of less than 0.5 parts per million.

Poisoning by specific heavy metals

Poisoning by specific heavy metals - technical


Aluminium hydroxide is used as an antacid and as a phosphate binder in the management of chronic renal failure. Aluminium sulphate is employed in water purification and paper manufacture. Aluminium may be absorbed orally and by inhalation. More than 90% of absorbed aluminium is bound to transferrin. Though some accumulates in brain tissue, most body aluminium is stored in bone and the liver. It is excreted mainly via the kidneys so that accumulation may occur in the presence of renal failure.

Poisoning by specific drugs clinical features and management Amfetamines to Diuretics

Poisoning by specific drugs (including substances of abuse) - clinical features and treatment Amfetamines to diuretics - technical

Amfetamines and ecstasy (MDMA)

Amfetamines, particularly metamfetamine (‘crystal meth’, ‘ice’) and MDMA, are abused widely. Features of poisoning are related predominantly to stimulation of central and peripheral adrenergic receptors and, in addition, hyperthermia and hyponatraemia (secondary to inappropriate ADH secretion) may develop in severe MDMA toxicity. Poisoning is usually the result of recreational use.