Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses

Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses in detail - technical


Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses are small, nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses.

Human papillomavirus

There are over 100 human papillomavirus (HPV) types that infect epithelia of skin and mucous membranes. They infect only humans, and cause conditions including the following:

Skin warts and verrucas—caused by types 1 and 2; infection initiated when, after e.g. minor skin abrasions, the basal cells of the epithelium come in contact with infectious virus.

Temporal Bone Resection

Temporal bone resection - technical


Temporal bone resection is a general term encompassing a variety of procedures for resection of malignant tumors of the temporal bone. The terms that have been used to describe procedures on the temporal bone have been muddled in the past, and the goal of this entry is to provide the reader a concise and clear explanation of temporal bone resections.

Mesothelioma - Malignant

Malignant mesothelioma is a cancerous tumour of the pleura (the membrane that lines the chest cavity and covers the lungs). Exposure to asbestos dust is a risk factor (see asbestos-related diseases). Symptoms do not always occur. Those that do include cough, chest pain, and breathing difficulty, especially if a pleural effusion (a collection of fluid around the lung) develops. Diagnosis is made with a chest X-ray followed by pleural biopsy or examination of a sample of fluid from any effusion. If the tumour is small, surgery is often successful.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer - technical

Testicular cancer accounts for 1% of male malignancies and is unusual in that it occurs predominantly in young men, being the most common tumour in 15- to 44-year-olds in the United Kingdom. The peak incidence of 15 cases per 100 000 is in the fourth decade. Testicular cancer is also unusual for a solid tumour in that more than 90% of cases are curable using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is a cancerous growth in the prostate gland that is one of the most common types of cancer in men. The cause of the cancer is unknown, but the male sex hormone testosterone has been found to influence the growth rate and spread of the tumour. Men who have a family history of prostate cancer are at an increased risk of developing cancer of the prostate and the condition most commonly affects elderly men.

Kidney cancer

Kidney cancer is a cancerous tumour of the kidney. Most kidney cancers originate in the kidney itself, but in rare cases cancer spreads to the kidney from another organ. 


There are three main types of cancer that affect the kidney: renal cell carcinoma, nephroblastoma, and transitional cell carcinoma.