Environmental Pollutants Radon

Environmental Pollutants Radon - technical


Radon gas is the most important source of natural radioactivity. It is a radioactive noble gas that emanates from the ground. Radon concentrations in outdoor air are low, but in underground mines or inside houses radon concentrations can reach high levels. The biologic effects of radon are mostly due to its decay products. These are solid heavy metal isotopes that are themselves radioactive. They can be deposited on the bronchial epithelium, where they emit ionizing radiation in the form of aparticles.

Cigarettes: a complex cocktail of chemicals

Cigarettes: a complex cocktail of chemicals

Smoking a cigarette is one of the most unhealthy things a human can do.

Cigarette smoke has been directly linked to an increased risk of many diseases including cancer, heart disease and even sexual impotence.

Nicotine constricts the blood vessels, raising blood pressure and increasing the strain on the heart.

Thirty per cent of all cancer deaths can be attributed to smoking. Cancers other than lung cancer which are linked to smoking include:

Stopping Smoking and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Smoking cessation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - technical


Smoking is a well established cause of chronic lung disease and is the leading preventable behavior contributing to patient morbidity and mortality. Smoking cessation has been shown to have a strong beneficial effect on the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses

Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses in detail - technical


Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses are small, nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses.

Human papillomavirus

There are over 100 human papillomavirus (HPV) types that infect epithelia of skin and mucous membranes. They infect only humans, and cause conditions including the following:

Skin warts and verrucas—caused by types 1 and 2; infection initiated when, after e.g. minor skin abrasions, the basal cells of the epithelium come in contact with infectious virus.

Temporal Bone Resection

Temporal bone resection - technical


Temporal bone resection is a general term encompassing a variety of procedures for resection of malignant tumors of the temporal bone. The terms that have been used to describe procedures on the temporal bone have been muddled in the past, and the goal of this entry is to provide the reader a concise and clear explanation of temporal bone resections.

Mesothelioma - Malignant

Malignant mesothelioma is a cancerous tumour of the pleura (the membrane that lines the chest cavity and covers the lungs). Exposure to asbestos dust is a risk factor (see asbestos-related diseases). Symptoms do not always occur. Those that do include cough, chest pain, and breathing difficulty, especially if a pleural effusion (a collection of fluid around the lung) develops. Diagnosis is made with a chest X-ray followed by pleural biopsy or examination of a sample of fluid from any effusion. If the tumour is small, surgery is often successful.